We can do plenty of things without need or without installing SharePoint server 2010 by using client object model.
But tricky part here is we should get the SharePoint server dll’s to work on client object model (.Net and Silverlight). So, how can we get those? All dll’s will get only from the SharePoint server 2010 hive (means after installation of SharePoint server 2010).
To work on .Net managed code, we should get the below list of dll’s from the “14/ISAPI” folder
To work on .Net managed code, we should get the below list of dll’s from the “14\TEMPLATE\LAYOUTS\ClientBin” folder
But without need of installing SharePoint server 2010, we can get those lists of dll’s. For more details go through the below links: http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=21786
[Once you installed the Redistributable pack, all the dll’s will store in C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\SharePoint Client” location].
Note: If you running system is 32-bit, download 32-bit version Redistributable package, here everyone get one question about, our SharePoint 2010 server supports only 64-bit then how can it supports 32-bit version solution in it. Here is the solution for it, while building solution, select the change the target framework to 64-bit version.
Hope you got it right.